Current place of Flexible Ureteroscopy and Laser Lithotripsy for Stones ≥ 2 cm

Haluk AKPINAR, MD Associate Professor of Urology Departments of Endourology & Robotic Surgery Group Florence Nightingale Hospitals Istanbul Turkey   Traditionally large renal stones have been treated with PNL, shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), or a combination of both and, and sometimes by an open procedure. Currently, guidelines on urolithiasis recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as the first-line

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